Carbon dioxide (CO2) transport infrastructure will be essential to decarbonizing key industries and regions across the United States (US). This fact sheet provides an overview of CO2 transport in the US, focusing on CO2 pipelines.
CO2 pipelines are the most efficient, cost-effective, and safest way to transport captured CO2 to geologic storage sites or sites for utilization. These pipelines have been operating in the US for 50 years, with over 5,000 miles of pipelines currently in operation. Current estimates indicate that CO2 pipelines in the United States will need to expand by up to 68,000 miles to meet net zero and midcentury climate goals.
CO2 pipelines are regulated at both the federal and state level, with federal agencies regulating safety requirements and state agencies overseeing the siting and permitting process. Safety data show that CO2 pipelines have been and can be operated at the highest level of safety by utilizing industry best practices.